Statement of Financial Position: Overview of Nonprofit Net Assets

profit organizations

The third and final section of your statement of financial position is the net assets section. Generally, these assets are listed in order of the amount of time that it would take for them to become liquid assets. For example, cash is already liquid, so it’s listed first in the assets section.


Take our 2-minute survey to find out if outsourced accounting and bookkeeping is a good fit for your organization. Your team needs to spend countless hours entering receipts, invoicing clients, running payroll, and reconciling your books BEFORE you can get the reports you need to run your business the right way. Non-Current liabilities are liabilities that will not become due within the next year. Assets are anything of value your organization possesses or is entitled to, such as cash, pledged donations, property, equipment, investments, etc.

At any given time, a nonprofit needs to know where they stand financially. A balance sheet is a report that shows an organization’s financial standing at a point in time. Having a solid understanding of your nonprofit’s finances at any given time supports decision-making and planning. Are you struggling to prepare your nonprofit financial statements accurately and transparently?

Income Statement vs. Statement of Activities

If your assets increase and your liabilities stay the same, then your net assets will also increase. But if your liabilities increase without any corresponding increase in assets, then your net assets will decrease. Provides stakeholders with a better understanding of the organization’s financial activities, performance, and position. Provides transparency and clarity to stakeholders, such as donors, grantors, and other interested parties, about the organization’s financial activities. Cash outflows include cash paid for expenses, investments, and financing activities, such as loan payments or grant distributions. Cash inflows from operating activities include cash received from the organization’s primary operations, such as program fees and donations.

These statements are relatively consistent across different types of nonprofit organizations, although some nonprofits may be required to produce additional reports, statements, or disclosures. The statement of functional expenses shows how expenses are incurred for each functional area of the business. Functional areas typically include management and administration, fund raising, and programs.


For example, if an organization has a negative net cash flow, it may be in a less favorable cash position than an organization with a positive net cash flow. Examples of non-profit cash flow statements can provide insight into how different organizations generate and spend their cash. The statement of activities reports the revenue, expenses, and net assets of the nonprofit. These statements can be considered analogous to a for-profit organization’s income statement. Fund accounting was developed to present fairly the financial transactions unique to nonprofit organizations. Furthermore, their financial statements should be more accessible to users and potential users in order to promote the kind of accountability that corporations have to their shareholders.

Balance Cheat Sheet

Because nonprofit organizations enjoy tax-exempt status, any taxpayer should have the right to examine their financial statements and compare their financial performance with their objectives and accomplishments. By generating a statement of financial position that covers all of the above, a nonprofit bookkeeper or accountant can easily determine their organization’s current performance. An NFP’s balance sheet also serves an important purpose when communicating with key stakeholders such as donors, grantmakers, and board members.


Categorizing in this way allows the stakeholders of the nonprofit to determine how effectively the organization allocates its funds to support their programs. Recent years have seen the greatest changes to nonprofit accounting statements in decades, with new requirements that govern how statements are presented. Accounting Standards Updates issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board have additional implications for nonprofits. A nonprofit entity issues a somewhat different set of financial statements than the statements produced by a for-profit entity.

What Is the Purpose of a Cash Flow Statement for a Nonprofit Organization?

But Chrysler’s 1978 annual report gave no indication of commitments for plant expansion, fixed asset additions budgeted to complete retooling, or the amount of internally generated funds that might be available to underwrite these additions. The resulting financial statements must be interpreted differently from corporate statements. A deficit in a nonprofit enterprise may mean that it has invested in activities benefiting future generations. The nonprofit organization tries to make a match; the generation that gets the benefits also pays for them through future tax payments. The deficit is not necessarily a signal of failure or a cause for concern, as it is in a business. Government organizations incorporate budgets into their financial statements because their purpose is to execute the budget created by the legislative branch.

Great healthcare leaders to know 2023 – Becker’s Hospital Review

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Posted: Wed, 12 Apr 2023 00:19:51 GMT [source]

You can find it by dividing the average monthly expenses by your total cash and cash equivalents. If you owned a house valued at $300K, and you had an outstanding mortgage balance of $200K, your net assets would be $100K. Likewise, your nonprofit’s net assets are the difference between your assets and liabilities.

Board Booklet

botkeeper flow statements for nonprofits are nearly identical to cash flow statements in the for-profit world. A cash flow statement for a nonprofit organization reports the amount of cash a company has on hand by factoring its operation costs, assets, and financing. The statement of financial position reports the assets, liabilities, and what’s left over after liabilities are subtracted from assets—net assets—as of a set point in time be it the end of a month, quarter or year.. When looking at assets it’s important to notice what assets are current, those that can easily be converted to cash, versus those that are physical assets and are not as easily used for monthly bills. Net assets are also important to understand because they can come with restrictions.

  • Nonprofit board members are ultimately responsible for the effective, responsible use of a nonprofit’s resources.
  • This is where you can actually see how the organization’s cash was used in a given year.
  • This is a challenge because how can you budget for what the market will do?
  • The existence of substantial interfund loans, particularly those of long tenure and in which the “debtor” fund seems to lack the resources to repay such a loan, also indicates fiscal stress.

Keep in mind that this report is more accurate and helpful if your organization uses an accrual method of accounting rather than the cash method. Accrual accounting allows nonprofits to record revenue when earned and expenses when incurred rather than when the money actually enters or leaves the account . It provides a more accurate statement about when financial changes occurred, creating a more exact report to work off of. The change in net assets without donor restrictions indicates if an organization operated the most recent fiscal period at a financial gain or loss. This line is a direct connection with and should be equal to the bottom line of an organization’s income statement (also called a Statement of Activities or profit/loss statement). This aspect of the nonprofit financial statement accounts for program, administrative, and fundraising expenses.

Balance Sheet of Households and Nonprofit Organizations, 1952 – 2022

Being unrestricted, the quasi-endowment funds can be used in any manner and removed at the board’s discretion. Clearly these nonprofit organizations—including hospitals, educational institutions, religious groups, arts groups, social agencies, and museums, as well as municipalities—are under pressure to make their financial status better understood. Their managers, their board members or trustees, and taxpayers need to understand and deal with the reports that present their financial condition. To explain the nature and how many donor restrictions (i.e., of use, of time, or investment return, etc.), nonprofit balance sheets include disclosures . Temporarily restricted net assets are unavailable for general use at the moment. They get released through either satisfaction of a donor-imposed restriction , or the passage of time.

Join us online for three days of speakers, workshops, and more invaluable content, and to connect with other board, staff, and volunteers from nonprofits from across the state. Helps non-profit leaders ensure compliance with accounting standards and other applicable laws and regulations. Provides insight into an organization’s liquidity and ability to meet its financial obligations in the short term. GrowthForce accounting services provided through an alliance with SK CPA, PLLC. Cash flows from investing activities include the purchase and proceeds of any investments, properties, or equipment. How do you record a loan from officers/director to the non-profit on the 990-PF balance sheet ?

  • If you happen to try to reconcile an organization’s financial statements with its IRS Form 990, there can be even more confusion as unrealized gains and losses are not included as income or loss on the IRS Form 990.
  • Short-term investments are usually labeled as current liabilities and should be owed within the year.
  • The Form 990 is readily available on the internet to any member of the public for review including potential funders.
  • The third item on any balance sheet should show the difference between assets and liabilities—the total financial gain or loss.
  • A balance sheet is a crucial tool for non-profit organizations as it helps them track their assets, liabilities, and net assets.

A higher proportion of current assets to current liabilities indicates a more liquid organization. At Smith and Howard, our nonprofit accounting professionals have extensive experience preparing financial statements for nonprofit organizations, and can also provide support with audit, tax, and other accounting requirements. Much like the statement of financial position, the statement of activities must distinguish restricted funds from unrestricted funds. Common revenue categories include earned revenue and donor contributions, while expenses are typically split into program and non-program expenses.

500,000 in restricted gifts is not used for the designated purposes, the amount is returnable to the donors. The assumption of an obligation, noted during the fiscal period in which the encumbrance is acknowledged, is merely the first step in the process that, at some later point, will result in an actual expenditure. Nevertheless, the recognition of encumbrances provides very useful information about the resources available. When coupled with recognition of budgeted resource inflows, encumbrance accounting permits a continuous measure of the unencumbered resources that can be freely used to accomplish the fund’s objectives. Assets encompass resources such as cash, investments, equipment, and pledges receivable.